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South Korea and Brazil. There is evidence of ancient Roman women playing a version of handball called expulsim ludere.
The team handball game of today was codified at the end of the 19th century in northern Europe: The first written set of team handball rules was published in by the Danish gym teacher, lieutenant and Olympic medalist Holger Nielsen from Ordrup grammar school, north of Copenhagen.
After these rules were improved by Karl Schelenz. The first international games were played under these rules, between Germany and Belgium by men in and between Germany and Austria by women in In , the Congress of the International Amateur Athletics Federation nominated a committee to draw up international rules for field handball.
During the next several decades, indoor handball flourished and evolved in the Scandinavian countries. The sport re-emerged onto the world stage as team handball for the Summer Olympics in Munich.
Due to its popularity in the region, the Eastern European countries that refined the event became the dominant force in the sport when it was reintroduced.
Since the world championship in Iceland, the competition has been held every two years. By July , the IHF listed member federations - approximately , teams and 19 million players.
In handling the ball, players are subject to the following restrictions:. Notable scoring opportunities can occur when attacking players jump into the goal area.
For example, an attacking player may catch a pass while launching inside the goal area, and then shoot or pass before touching the floor.
Doubling occurs when a diving attacking player passes to another diving teammate. The goals are surrounded by a near-semicircular area, called the zone or the crease, defined by a line six meters from the goal.
A dashed near-semicircular line nine metres from the goal marks the free-throw line. Each line on the court is part of the area it encompasses.
This implies that the middle line belongs to both halves at the same time. The goals are two meters high and three meters wide. They must be securely bolted either to the floor or the wall behind.
The goal posts and the crossbar must be made out of the same material e. The three sides of the beams visible from the playing field must be painted alternatingly in two contrasting colors which both have to contrast against the background.
The colors on both goals must be the same. Each goal must feature a net. This must be fastened in such a way that a ball thrown into the goal does not leave or pass the goal under normal circumstances.
If necessary, a second net may be clasped to the back of the net on the inside. The goals are surrounded by the crease. This area is delineated by two quarter circles with a radius of six metres around the far corners of each goal post and a connecting line parallel to the goal line.
Only the defending goalkeeper is allowed inside this zone. However, the court players may catch and touch the ball in the air within it as long as the player starts his jump outside the zone and releases the ball before he lands landing inside the perimeter is allowed in this case as long as the ball has been released.
If a player without the ball contacts the ground inside the goal perimeter, or the line surrounding the perimeter, he must take the most direct path out of it.
However, should a player cross the zone in an attempt to gain an advantage e. Similarly, violation of the zone by a defending player is penalized only if they do so in order to gain an advantage in defending.
Outside of one long edge of the playing field to both sides of the middle line are the substitution areas for each team.
The areas usually contain the benches as seating opportunities. Team officials, substitutes, and suspended players must wait within this area.
During half-time, substitution areas are swapped. Any player entering or leaving the play must cross the substitution line which is part of the side line and extends 4.
A standard match for all teams of at least age 16 has two minute halves with a to minute halftime break. At half-time, teams switch sides of the court as well as benches.
For youths the length of the halves is reduced—25 minutes at ages 12 to 15, and 20 minutes at ages 8 to 11; though national federations of some countries may differ in their implementation from the official guidelines.
If a decision must be reached in a particular match e. Should these not decide the game either, the winning team is determined in a penalty shootout best-of-five rounds; if still tied, extra rounds afterwards until won by one team.
The referees may call timeout according to their sole discretion; typical reasons are injuries, suspensions, or court cleaning.
Penalty throws should trigger a timeout only for lengthy delays, such as a change of the goalkeeper. Since , teams can call 3 team timeouts per game up to two per half , which last one minute each.
This right may only be invoked by team in ball possession. The timekeeper then immediately interrupts the game by sounding an acoustic signal and stops the time.
Before that, it was one per half. For purpose of calling timeouts, overtime and shootouts are extensions of the second half.
A handball match is adjudicated by two equal referees. Some national bodies allow games with only a single referee in special cases like illness on short notice.
Should the referees disagree on any occasion, a decision is made on mutual agreement during a short timeout; or, in case of punishments, the more severe of the two comes into effect.
The referees are obliged to make their decisions "on the basis of their observations of facts". The referees position themselves in such a way that the team players are confined between them.
They stand diagonally aligned so that each can observe one side line. Depending on their positions, one is called field referee and the other goal referee.
These positions automatically switch on ball turnover. They physically exchange their positions approximately every 10 minutes long exchange , and change sides every five minutes short exchange.
The IHF defines 18 hand signals for quick visual communication with players and officials. The signal for warning or disqualification is accompanied by a yellow or red card,  respectively.
The referees also use whistle blows to indicate infractions or to restart the play. The referees are supported by a scorekeeper and a timekeeper who attend to formal things such as keeping track of goals and suspensions, or starting and stopping the clock, respectively.
They also keep an eye on the benches and notify the referees on substitution errors. Their desk is located between the two substitution areas.
Each team consists of seven players on court and seven substitute players on the bench. One player on the court must be the designated goalkeeper, differing in his clothing from the rest of the field players.
Substitution of players can be done in any number and at any time during game play. An exchange takes place over the substitution line.
A prior notification of the referees is not necessary. Some national bodies, such as the Deutsche Handball Bund DHB, "German Handball Federation" , allow substitution in junior teams only when in ball possession or during timeouts.
This restriction is intended to prevent early specialization of players to offence or defence. Field players are allowed to touch the ball with any part of their bodies above and including the knee.
As in several other team sports, a distinction is made between catching and dribbling. A player who is in possession of the ball may stand stationary for only three seconds, and may take only three steps.
They must then either shoot, pass, or dribble the ball. Taking more than three steps at any time is considered travelling, and results in a turnover.
A player may dribble as many times as they want though, since passing is faster, it is the preferred method of attack , as long as during each dribble the hand contacts only the top of the ball.
Therefore, carrying is completely prohibited, and results in a turnover. After the dribble is picked up, the player has the right to another three seconds or three steps.
The ball must then be passed or shot, as further holding or dribbling will result in a double dribble turnover and a free throw for the other team.
Other offensive infractions that result in a turnover include charging and setting an illegal screen. Carrying the ball into the six-meter zone results either in ball possession by the goalkeeper by attacker or turnover by defender.
Only the goalkeepers are allowed to move freely within the goal perimeter, although they may not cross the goal perimeter line while carrying or dribbling the ball.
Within the zone, they are allowed to touch the ball with all parts of their bodies, including their feet, with a defensive aim for other actions, they are subject to the same restrictions as the field players.
The goalkeepers may participate in the normal play of their teammates. They may be substituted by a regular field player if their team elects to use this scheme in order to outnumber the defending players.
Earlier, this field player become the designated goalkeeper on the court; and had to wear some vest or bib to be identified as such.
A rule change meant to make the game more offensive now allows any player to substitute with the goalkeeper. The new rule resembles the one used in ice hockey.
If either goalkeeper deflects the ball over the outer goal line, their team stays in possession of the ball, in contrast to other sports like football.
The goalkeeper resumes the play with a throw from within the zone "goalkeeper throw". In a penalty shot, throwing the ball against the head of a goalkeeper who is not moving risks a direct disqualification "red card".
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